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Government Decisions

On this page

What is Administrative Law

Administrative law is concerned with challenges to a decision or action of a government official, department or authority. It may also apply when the person whose decision you wish to challenge is not a government officer but is exercising a power granted to them by a statute.

Western Australia 1 administrative law government decisions ombudsman human rights discrimination

General Information

The Law Handbook published in Victoria has an informative practical chapter Government And The Individual.

The steps they advise are:

  1. Act quickly
  2. Try to find the name and the position of the officer responsible for work on the case
  3. Work out whether it is a state decision or a federal decision
  4. Carefully read the legislation the decision was made under
  5. Try to obtain reasons for the decision
  6. Select the method of review

If no specific right of review or appeal is provided by the relevant legislation, your only choices for review will be to seek judicial review of the decision in the courts or to make a complaint to the State or Federal Ombudsman.

People affected by certain decisions of the Commonwealth Government or its agencies may appeal to the Commonwealth Administrative Appeals Tribunal (AAT). Similarly, people affected by certain decisions of the Victorian Government or its agencies may appeal to the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal (VCAT).

Law Handbook Online published by the Legal Services Commission in South Australia (and therefore mainly dealing with SA Law) has a Chapter Complaints.

Judicial Review of Commonwealth Decisions

The Federal Court and Federal Circuit Court may review most administrative decisions under Commonwealth laws.

They may can do this under the Administrative Decisions (Judicial Review) Act 1977 or based on Common Law principles.

The grounds on which a decision may be reviewed under the Act are:

  • that there has been a breach of the rules of natural justice in the making of the decision
  • that procedures that should have been observed in making the decision were not observed
  • that the person who made the decision did not have jurisdiction to make the decision
  • that the decision was not authorised by the Act under which it was made
  • that the decision involved an error of law, whether or not the error appears on the record of the decision
  • that the decision was induced or affected by fraud
  • that there is no evidence or other material to justify the making of the decision
  • that the decision was otherwise contrary to law.

There are many factors that the Courts take into account under Common Law - though, in Commonwealth matters, most of these are covered by the list above. For more information see Judicial Review of WA decisions.

These include whether or not required procedures were followed, was the individual shown procedural fairness and given a fair and unbiased hearing, did the right person make the decision, did the agency only consider matters that the Act said were to be considered, was there a hidden agenda that was being served or was the decision unsupportable on any of the evidence.

Acts, Regulations, Rules & Forms

Are you looking for detailed information like this, or contact details for any of the bodies mentioned on this page. If so, then start on our Administrative Law for Lawyers page.

If it isn't there, then start on our Finding Detailed Legal Information page.

Please read our warning on that page "Be careful using these resources".

The Law is not always as straightforward as it appears. We have not included any information about when and how to use that information or any traps. We assume that the Lawyers will know this.

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Federal Ombudsman' Office

The Office considers and investigates complaints from people who believe they have been treated unfairly or unreasonably by an Australian Government department or agency. These include the Australian Taxation Office, Australia Post, Centrelink, Child Support Agency, and Department of Immigration and Citizenship.

They aim to resolve complaints impartially, informally and quickly.

The Office cannot override the decisions of the agencies or issue directions to their staff. Instead, they resolve disputes through consultation and negotiation. If necessary they will make formal recommendations to the most senior levels of government.

Ombudsman's Office

The West Australian Ombudsman is an independent and impartial watchdog. Their role is to make sure that the WA agencies and Local Councils they watch over fulfil their functions properly.

They work in a similar way to the Federal Ombudsman's Office.


Administrative Appeals Tribunal

Telephone: 1300 366 700

The AAT independently reviews a wide range of administrative decisions made by the Australian government and some non-government bodies. Both individuals and government agencies use its services.

It is more informal than most Courts. They try to help parties resolve their differences using mediation and other methods.

Applying to the AAT explains each stage of an application to the AAT for assistance.

Human Rights

Equal Opportunity Commission WA

Their role is to promote human rights and to help protect the community from discrimination, sexual harassment and religious vilification..

They have an enquiry service for people who want to know about their rights or responsibilities under those laws.

They also accept complaints of discrimination, sexual harassment or religious vilification. They investigate those complaints and conciliate complaints and try to resolve these without legal action. If that is not possible then they may refer the matter to SAT.

Australian Human Rights Commission

The Commission works towards an Australian society where the human rights of all are respected, protected and promoted.

Their work includes:

  • providing education and raising public awareness about human rights
  • handling complaints of discrimination and breaches of human rights
  • researching human rights issues and contributing to policy developments
  • legal advocacy on human rights issues

Indigenous Human Rights

Indigenous Human Rights Network Australia (IHRNA) is a network of people who advocate and promote the awareness of indigenous human rights in Australia.

They facilitate access to information, expert advice, and the sharing of best practice solutions for indigenous people and peoples from a human rights approach.

Federal Court

Telephone: (08) 9268 7100

General information for the public This includes information about how cases are started in the Court, the assistance that is available for this and what is involved in attending Court.

The public are encouraged to obtain legal advice before considering issuing proceedings themselves in the Federal Court. Few people attempt to run a case here without a lawyer and there is a risk that if you fail that you may have to pay tens of thousands (or even hundreds of thousands of dollars) of legal costs to the other party.

Federal Circuit Court

Tel: (08) 92687100

You should get legal advice before making a decision about what to do or applying to the Court. A lawyer can help you understand your legal rights and responsibilities and explain how the law applies to your case.

If you decide to proceed yourself then you should contact the Court to discuss the documents and procedures involved.


State Administrative Tribunal

SAT also deals with disputes between people and government (State/Local) about:

  • planning and land valuation
  • licences to carry on businesses (including travel agents, motor car traders and others)
  • State taxation
  • many other government decisions (such as Freedom of Information issues).

Office of the Australian Information Commissioner

The Privacy Act regulates the way in which personal information can be collected, the accuracy of the information, how it is kept secure, and how it is used and disclosed. It also provides rights to individuals to access and correct the information organisations and government agencies hold about them.

OAIC has an extensive collection of information on:

  • your rights and how to protect your privacy
  • the obligations of an organisation under the privacy laws and guidelines on how to do this
  • the complaint process - including a Complaint Checker

The OAIC investigates and conciliates to resolve disputes. You will need your own legal advice to take somebody to Court if your rights are breached.

Freedom of Information

Go direct to an agency to request copies of documents under the freedom of information (FOI) laws. They will advise you if any special form is required or whether it is sufficient to make the request by letter. You need to be give enough information so that the relevant documents can be identified from the millions of records that the Government keeps.

After a FOI request is made, government agencies must decide whether to give access to information, and whether that access should be partial or full access. An agency does not have to give access to exempted material.

There are always charges for making a FOI request.

To maximise the chances of obtaining access on the first request, some strategies include:

  • try asking for the document before making a formal FOI application.
  • narrow the request so that it is not voluminous. For example, ask to talk to someone in the relevant area about what you want to see, ask to see a list of files on the subject, or ask to see a list of the types of documents usually held by the the agency. You can also find out more about the information they keep from looking at their annual report.
  • if a document is exempt, ask if you can have it with the exempt matter deleted. This will help you get an impression of the contents.
  • consult the Ombudsman if any response or service is not adequate.
  • act promptly on any right you have to request that the decision be reviewed by the agency. (You will be informed of that right when you are given the response to your request).
  • if you are still not satisfied then you may apply to the Administrative Appeals Tribunal for Commonwealth issues or the Administrative Decisions Tribunal for State issues.

Freedom of Information in WA

Telephone: (08) 6551-7888